Charles Rennie Mackintosh

Scottish architect, designer, and artist associated with Art Nouveau, Mackintosh is particularly well known for his interior design, designs for furniture, metalwork, stained glass, and textiles, as well as graphic design and watercolor painting. Born in Glasgow, he attended night classes at the Glasgow School of Art (GSA) from 1883. From 1884, Mackintosh trained with the architect John Hutchison and was employed by the architectural firm Honeyman & Keppie in 1889, becoming a partner in 1901 and leaving the firm in 1913. At the GSA, Mackintosh formed an artistic collaboration with Margaret Macdonald, her sister Frances Macdonald, and Herbert MacNair. They were known as The Four or the Spook School as their work was considered mysterious and ethereal. It was inspired by Celtic myth and the Symbolist Movement and characterized by elongated and highly stylized natural forms and beings. The Glasgow Style was extremely influential in European Art Nouveau, and the Mackintoshes exhibited in European cities such as Vienna (1900), Turin (1902), Moscow (1902), and Dresden (1903).

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