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Tony Fry

Designer Biography

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...Tony Fry’s body of work, as expressed in various projects and a still growing collection of writing, represents a commitment to elevating the significance of design to the status of a fundamental condition of human being, coupled...

Buckminster Fuller

Designer Biography

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...Fuller was an American inventor, author, educator, and designer. Born in Milton, Massachusetts, Fuller was responsible for a variety of sometimes eccentric architectural and product design solutions. Those ideas included two principal...

Practices, Practice Theory

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 3

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Chapter

...Practice theory is a social and cultural theory that seeks to understand how social beings come to structure their everyday life by focusing on the significance of shared understandings, processes, and engagements with things. Theorists...

Politics, the Political, and Design

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 3

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Chapter

...Although design is not widely understood as a political activity, it always involves political decisions about how people should live, behave, communicate, be viewed, and treated. Tony Fry argues that design is, in fact, profoundly...

Praxis

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 3

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Chapter

...In early Greek thinking, the concepts of Praxis and Poïesis were juxtaposed as two different kinds of activities, Praxis as action that is an end in itself, Poïesis (making) as action toward an end. Praxis came to be understood differently...

Holarchy

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Chapter

...Holarchy is a term coined by Arthur Koestler, a Hungarian-British author, first appearing in his 1967 novel The Ghost in the Machine. Holarchy derives from the Greek word “cholos” that signifies something that is simultaneously both a part...

Interdisciplinarity

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Chapter

...Interdisciplinarity occurs when researchers from two or more disciplines engage in thorough innovative research initiatives, encouraging the multisectorial cross-fertilization of new ideas. World problems, societal concerns, and global...

Futuring and Defuturing Design Futures, Politics, Tony Fry

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Chapter

...According to Tony Fry who first coined the term, Defuturing names two things. First, it designates the character and the historical consequence of the nature and the product of design practice, and second, it methodologically designates...

Fry, Tony

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Chapter

...Tony Fry’s body of work, as expressed in various projects and a still growing collection of writing, represents a commitment to elevating the significance of design to the status of a fundamental condition of human being, coupled...

Need

Anne-Marie Willis

Anne-Marie Willis is a design writer, editor and educator. She is currently professor of Design Theory at the German University in Cairo, Egypt. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

Search for publications

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Chapter

...Need is a concept that is often unproblematically mobilized by designers. This has been reinforced by the widespread employment of Abraham Maslow’s reductive 1943 pyramid model of a hierarchy of needs. At its base, this model asserts...