The Bauhaus was an avant-garde school of design and architecture founded in Germany in 1919, hugely influential in the fourteen years before it was forced to close by the Nazi regime. The school's pedagogical approach was based on workshops, in which students received training in a wide range of applied arts disciplines. The Bauhaus became associated with a modernist aesthetic in which form and function were equally valued, and with a utopian project to transform society by design. Clive Edwards' bibliographic guide and lesson plan provide useful resources to learning and teaching about the Bauhaus.
Many, although not all, women students at the Bauhaus were apprenticed in the weaving workshops, where makers such as Anni Albers developed techniques that were both formally and artistically innovative. In their study of women at the Bauhaus, Patrick Rössler and Anke Blümm reveal how women also made an important contribution in a range of areas including photography, printmaking, drawing, and even in the male-dominated field of architecture.
One of the twentieth century's most influential architects and design educators, Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus in 1919. Read an overview of his career from the Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design and extracts from his foundational writings 'Theory and Organisation of the Bauhaus' and 'Bauhaus Dessau: Principles of Bauhaus Production'.
The films of the legendary director Stanley Kubrick are testament to his holistic and perfectionist approach, and throughout his career, he collaborated with key figures from the worlds of fashion, production and graphic design to create unforgettable cinematic spectacles. The production designer Ken Adam created both the NORAD control room in Dr Strangelove (1964) and the loving recreation of eighteenth-century England of Barry Lyndon (1975). Saul Bass designed the opening and closing sequences of Kubrick's Spartacus (1960) and the film poster for The Shining (1980). Read Pat Kirkham's account of Saul and his partner Elaine Bass's work in film design, and how Bass's background in graphic design for advertising influenced his distinctive use of striking symbols, modern typography and hand lettering. Kubrick's totalising vision and attention to detail is evident in his 1968 masterpiece 2001: A Space Odyssey, on which Kubrick collaborated with production designer Anthony Masters and art director Ernest Archer, from the stunning sets of the spaceship USS Discovery One down to the cutlery used by its astronauts, which was designed by Arne Jacobsen for the restaurant of the SAS Royal Hotel in Copenhagen.