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Austrian graphic designer and typographer, and notable member of the Bauhaus, in 1919 Herbert Bayer was apprenticed under the artist Georg Schmidthammer, and in 1921, he joined the Darmstadt Artists Colony, where he was introduced to the works of Wassily Kandinsky and Walter Gropius, and the Bauhaus Manifesto. Inspired by this, he joined the Bauhaus soon afterward and became a member of its faculty following four years of study there. Bayer created the iconic Bauhaus typeface Universal in 1925, which is sans-serif and entirely lowercase. In 1928, Bayer left the Bauhaus for Berlin, where he worked not only on design projects, but painting and photography as well. During this time, he became art director for the Berlin office of Vogue. Due to increasing political tensions in Germany at the time, he immigrated to the United States in 1938 and began a prolific design career in New York, including organizing a comprehensive exhibition of Bauhaus work at the Museum of Modern Art. Walter Paepcke of the Container Corporation of America hired him in 1946 as a design and architectural consultant, and he relocated to Aspen, Colorado, where among other work he cofounded the International Design Conference.
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