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Comfort

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

...Originally, comfort referred only to relations between people, but within modernity it extended to material things and is now associated with a condition of physical ease. Many scientific studies have sought to define absolute parameters...

Cultural Capital

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

...Pierre Bourdieu developed the concept of cultural capital in the early 1960s during studies he conducted with colleagues on the ways in which social inequality is reproduced through the institution of schooling (Bourdieu and Passeron, 1977...

Cultural Relativism/Cultural Difference

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

...Cultural relativism, like cultural absolutism or cultural pluralism, refers to a theoretical system for classifying and understanding human variation. The concept of cultural relativism emerged as a set of descriptive and epistemological...

Ethnocentrism

Anne-Marie Willis

Anne-Marie Willis is a design writer, editor and educator. She is currently professor of Design Theory at the German University in Cairo, Egypt. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

...Ethnocentrism is the tendency to interpret and judge other cultures by the norms and standards of one’s own culture.Advocates of cultural relativism may condemn this tendency, but Pierre Clastres has argued, from an anthropological...

Race and Racism

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 3

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

...Race and racism are contested concepts within and outside of academic contexts. The meaning and social significance of these terms have shifted in response to social, political, and cultural changes, meaning that genealogies of racial...

Culture, Theories of

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

...Culture is both a value-laden and descriptive term. Its linguistic roots connect it to habitation and cultivation, this being developed over several centuries of European thinking toward the idea of culture as improvement, civilization...

New Zealand Design

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

...Geographical distance creates the difference for New Zealand designers, along with their island nation’s bicultural heritage, small population, easy access to nature, and egalitarian attitude. In this last country to be discovered...

Gender and Design

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

...The distinction between sex as biological, and gender as socially constructed, was a key premise of Anglo-American feminism. Later, this came to be viewed as more complex, with the claim that our biological bodies are interpreted through...

Slovenian Design

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 3

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

...As in other parts of the former Yugoslavia, the emergence of design as a modern discipline in Slovenia was tied to the onset of socialist industrialization in the early 1950s. Slovenia, however, was exceptional both in Yugoslavia and more...

Appadurai, Arjun (1949–)

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

...Arjun Appadurai, an Indian sociocultural anthropologist, regarded as a leading figure in globalization studies, was born in 1949 in Mumbai, India. In the late 1960s, he went to the United States to pursue a BA in History at Brandeis...