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Backcasting

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...While forecasting attempts to predict future outcomes based on current trends, backcasting is the practice of defining desired future outcomes then working backward to the present to assess feasibility and prescribe necessary actions...

Benchmarking

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...Benchmarks are industry “best practices” that set standards primarily for technical and competitive performance. A variety of metrics are employed such as quality, time, and cost. Specifications are set at two levels: internally...

On-Demand Processes

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 3

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...Procedures that allow products to be produced as needed, allowing for maximum efficiency and minimum waste. Traditional production chains are largely inaccurate, requiring market forecasting and estimates on preordered quantities of a given...

Interrogative Design

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...Interrogative design combines critique with social activism, as seen in the work of the Interrogative Design Group, Center for Advanced Visual Studies at MIT, Boston. Under the directorship of artist Krzysztof Wodiczko, the group’s explicit...