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Factory System

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...The factory system describes the concentration of labor in “manufactories,” as opposed to a “putting out” system of dispersed labor by outworkers, usually working from home to quotas, with their products collected on a regular basis...

Telephone

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 3

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...The design history of the telephone follows that of many technologically advanced domestic products. At its commercial introduction in 1877 telephone design adopted the “mahogany and lacquered brass” aesthetic used for scientific equipment....

Truth to Materials

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 3

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...The concept of truth to material develops from ideas of true and false design consolidated by Henry Cole, Owen Jones, and Richard Redgrave in the “design reform” movement of the 1850s. It is one of three key values of the Arts and Crafts...

Humor in Design

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...Humor is something so subjective that it is difficult to define what humor in design might be. Most obviously humor is an essential component of much illustration, in particular cartoons and for many children’s books. It has also been...

Design Objects and the Museum

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...Arguably the first clear attempt to define design objects for museum collections was in the Museum of Manufactures in London, set up in the wake of the 1851 Great Exhibition and later to become the Victoria and Albert Museum (V...

Industrial Revolution

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...The concept of an “industrial revolution” was not formed until after people considered it had taken place, even then it is arguable if it was actually over. The whole idea of “revolution” has been questioned, as its timespan covers at least...

American System

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...The American System of manufacture is a term used to describe systematized production processes for technologically complex and/or exacting products. In 1803, Marc Isambard Brunel and Henry Maudslay began production of rigging blocks using...

Plagiarism

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 3

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...Copying is an essential part of the design process. This is done with more or less legality and ethical acceptability depending on the circumstances. The problems of protecting design from copyists have long been acknowledged...

Domestic Appliance Design

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 1

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...Possibly the first domestic appliance was the cast iron coal range, which began to be inserted into kitchen fireplaces in the late eighteenth century. In the mid-nineteenth century they were a standard fitting in most middle-class houses...

Found Objects

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Design Volume 2

Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

Encyclopedia Article

2

...The “found object” is more associated with fine art than it is design, first through Marcel Duchamp’s “ready-mades” in the 1910s, which took found designed goods and re-presented them, with more or less intervention as sculpture...